ACE-031 peptide is a myostatin inhibitor protein that is produced to imitate a natural receptor involved in controlling muscle mass, strength and function. ACE-031 works as a mysotatin blocker by binding myostatin and additional proteins that regulate the function of myostatin. Myostatin is an important protein that works to prevent the growth and development of muscle cells . Animals such as the Belgian blue bull produce less myostatin than other breeds of cow and this is responsible for the breeds extremely lean, hyper-sculpted, ultra-muscular physique due to an increased number of muscle fibres . ACE-031 works by binding myostatin from circulation, which prevents it from binding to its own receptors . These receptors normally function to switch off muscle growth when myostatin is bound, but because the binding is blocked by ACE-31 then muscle growth can continue unrestricted. Animal and human studies using ACE-031 showed increases in lean muscle mass and muscle volume, with beneficial effects on fat and bone biomarkers . Several pharmaceutical companies are also investigating ACE-031 as a treatment for several muscle-wasting disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). ACE-031 was concluded to be a promising therapeutic approach for treating DMD  and myostatin inhibition was shown to be a promising potential therapy in the treatment of ALS .
ACE-031 is packaged into vials as a powder and needs to be completely dissolved in bacteriostatic water. The water should be injected directly into the vial. The vial should not be shaken, but can be gently rotated in order to dissolve any remaining powder. ACE-031 1 mg can be dissolved by adding 1 ml of water to provide 1 mg of ACE-031 in every 1 ml of solution. This solution can be injected in one single dose for maximum efficacy or split into several smaller doses. The ACE-031 solution should be stored in the fridge for up to one month. For optimal growth of lean muscle mass, ACE-031 dosage can be injected up to 3 mcg/kg. Since the half-life of ACE-031 is up to 15 days  then this dosage should not be exceeded within a two-week period. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections are optimal when administering these peptides.
Treatment with ACE-031 up to 3 mcg/kg was shown to be safe and well tolerated in healthy individuals . All side effects that have been reported using ACE-031 at these concentrations are mild and the most common side effect is headache.
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- Attie, K.M., et al., A single ascending-dose study of muscle regulator ace-031 in healthy volunteers. Muscle & Nerve, 2013. 47(3): p. 416-423.
- Cadena, S.M., et al., Administration of a soluble activin type IIB receptor promotes skeletal muscle growth independent of fiber type. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2010. 109(3): p. 635-642.
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